Writing and editing require very different skills and writers and editors have very different roles. Writers and editors are both required to produce a written work whether it be a report, submission or publication; for the purposes of this article we will call the written work a 'manuscript' or 'publication'.
After the writer has written the first draft of the manuscript, they then self-edit it once, twice or multiple times and continue working on it until they feel it has been perfected to the best of their ability as a writer.
That is why the writer needs an editor.
There are several stages of editing required prior to the graphic design and proofreading stage. They include structural editing, line editing and copy editing. For more information go to: The three stages of editing.
Before editing the document, the editor needs to clarify the manual or guidelines that will be used, decide on any style issues not covered in the manual or that need to be highlighted, and commence a style sheet. All the editors involved as well as the graphic designer and proofreader then refer to the manual and style sheet while editing, designing and proofreading, to make sure the style is consistent throughout the publication.
In Australia, all government publications as well as many other types of publications need to be edited in accordance with the (Australian government) Style Manual which is now in its 6th Edition. The Manual can be used as a guide to editing any Australian publication although you may choose to use another style manual or guideline for your publication.
The writer may have their own preferences in regard to some aspects of style such as capitalising certain words or using a particular dot point style, and the editor will need to consult with and advise the writer in regard to any potential problems that may be caused by the writer's style preferences.
The style sheet is a list of rules for the publication. It might include a certain choice of spelling for a word, the capitilisation of certain words, and the fonts to be used for various headings or sections of text. If any agreed rules in the style sheet contradict the guidelines in the Manual, it is the style sheet rules that must be followed. The editor refers to both style sheet and manual to ensure the rules are applied consistently throughout the publication.
The editor's role includes structural editing (if required), line editing and copy editing to ensure the language and style suit the needs of the intended audience and are consistent throughout the document; correcting grammar, spelling and punctuation; and ensuring the document is error-free, ready for submission or graphic design.
For more information go to: The editor's role in producing your book
For information about self-editing and editing go to:
This article is based on my own experience over the past 20 years, editing and proofreading reports, policy documents, and my own and others' publications; self-publishing; and publishing my website and articles online. On Time Typing's other editors ha extensive experience in editing fiction publications. Keep posted for future articles about editors and editing, proofreaders and proofreading.